lififurubbders.gq/down-the-line-and-the-admirable.php This is what the camera saw in one corner. A score of men are lying on the slope of the trench. Suddenly they jump up and scramble over, the officer first — all but two. These are shot as soon as their heads show over. You see them put up their arms and slide heavily down again into the trench. The others rush on across the open, but more drop down. The moving finger at the wheel whirls faster. You watch the straggling advance over the dead ground, the wide line of men curiously dwarfen in the great space.
All the time men fall dead and wounded. One scene lights up the picture with humanity — a couple of Tommies running from cover under fire to bring in a wounded comrade. They toil back with their limp burden to the trench. The camera view-point shifts back when the first sweep of the attack is spent to a trench corner where the stream of wounded and prisoners is flowing back. There is a procession of laden stretchers and at times a stricken man turns his face in dull interest to watch the operator at his work. You never saw such pitiful scarecrows as these shambling, forlorn creatures, dazed from the bombardment, who are being helped along by their captors.
The unwounded Germans look in as bad a case — capless and ragged, without any equipment, stumbling along through the crowd of British. Many are still holding up their hands. There is one human touch when an awkward German banging into a Tommy is by him vigorously shoved aside. The Germans stagger along like drunken men.
The prisoners are seen afterwards under the kindly care of our fellows, who go about distributing cigarettes and soups to the woebegone crowd. British and German wounded, all in the same boat, help one another away from the battlefield. The slightly wounded are shown flocking to the dressing-stations. A man shot through the arm, for instance, is revealed under the deft hands of the surgeon, who puts a cigarette into his mouth in an interval of the dressing. A further retirement to the Hindenburg Line Siegfriedstellung in Operation Alberich began on 16 March , despite the new line being unfinished and poorly sited in some places.
Winston Churchill had objected to the way the battle was being fought in August , Lloyd George when Prime Minister criticised attrition warfare frequently and condemned the battle in his post-war memoirs. In the s a new orthodoxy of "mud, blood and futility" emerged and gained more emphasis in the s when the 50th anniversaries of the Great War battles were commemorated. Until , transport arrangements for the BEF were based on an assumption that the war of movement would soon resume and make it pointless to build infrastructure , since it would be left behind.
The British relied on motor transport from railheads which was insufficient where large masses of men and guns were concentrated. When the Fourth Army advance resumed in August, the wisdom of not building light railways which would be left behind was argued by some, in favour of building standard gauge lines. Experience of crossing the beaten zone showed that such lines or metalled roads could not be built quickly enough to sustain an advance, and that pausing while communications caught up allowed the defenders to recover.
A comprehensive system of transport was needed, which required a much greater diversion of personnel and equipment than had been expected. The original Allied estimate of casualties on the Somme, made at the Chantilly Conference on 15 November , was , British and French casualties and , German. As one German officer wrote,. In , Wendt published a comparison of German and British-French casualties which showed an average of 30 percent more Allied casualties than German losses on the Somme.
Edmonds wrote that comparisons of casualties were inexact, because of different methods of calculation by the belligerents but that British casualties were ,, from total British casualties in France in the period of ,, French Somme casualties were , and German casualties were c. The addition by Edmonds of c. Williams in McRandle and Quirk in cast doubt on the Edmonds calculations but counted , German casualties on the Western Front from July to December against , by Churchill, concluding that German losses were fewer than Anglo-French casualties but the ability of the German army to inflict disproportionate losses had been eroded by attrition.
In , Churchill wrote that the Germans had suffered , casualties against the French, between February and June and , between July and the end of the year see statistical tables in Appendix J of Churchill's World Crisis with , casualties at Verdun.
In turn German forces inflicted , casualties on the Entente. In a commentary on the debate about Somme casualties, Philpott used Miles's figures of , British casualties and the French official figures of , Sixth Army losses and 48, Tenth Army casualties. German losses were described as "disputed", ranging from ,—, Churchill's claims were a "snapshot" of July and not representative of the rest of the battle.
Philpott called the "blood test" a crude measure compared to manpower reserves, industrial capacity, farm productivity and financial resources and that intangible factors were more influential on the course of the war.
That's not to say that it was not incredibly bloody. Grey Wolf, Grey Sea. South of the Ancre, St. Alan Turing. Poland The Blitzkrieg Unleashed.
The German army was exhausted by the end of , with loss of morale and the cumulative effects of attrition and frequent defeats causing it to collapse in , a process which began on the Somme, echoing Churchill that the German soldiery was never the same again. After the Battle of the Ancre 13—18 November , British attacks on the Somme front were stopped by the weather and military operations by both sides were mostly restricted to survival in the rain, snow, fog, mud fields, waterlogged trenches and shell-holes. As preparations for the offensive at Arras continued, the British attempted to keep German attention on the Somme front.
The Germans then withdrew from much of the R. I Stellung to the R. II Stellung on 11 March, forestalling a British attack, which was not noticed by the British until dark on 12 March; the main German withdrawal from the Noyon salient to the Hindenburg Line Operation Alberich commenced on schedule on 16 March. Defensive positions held by the German army on the Somme after November were in poor condition; the garrisons were exhausted and censors of correspondence reported tiredness and low morale in front-line soldiers.
The situation left the German command doubtful that the army could withstand a resumption of the battle. The German defence of the Ancre began to collapse under British attacks, which on 28 January caused Rupprecht to urge that the retirement to the Siegfriedstellung Hindenburg Line begin. Ludendorff rejected the proposal the next day, but British attacks on the First Army — particularly the Action of Miraumont also known as the Battle of Boom Ravine, 17—18 February — caused Rupprecht on the night of 22 February to order a preliminary withdrawal of c.
I Stellung R. I Position. On 24 February the Germans withdrew, protected by rear guards , over roads in relatively good condition, which were then destroyed. The German withdrawal was helped by a thaw, which turned roads behind the British front into bogs and by disruption to the railways which supplied the Somme front. On the night of 12 March, the Germans withdrew from the R. II Stellung R. II Position on 13 March.
The British Legion and others commemorate the battle on 1 July.
At the start of the silence, the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery fired a gun every four seconds for one hundred seconds and a whistle was blown to end it. The silence was announced during a speech by the Prime Minister David Cameron who said, "There will be a national two-minute silence on Friday morning. I will be attending a service at the Thiepval Memorial near the battlefield, and it's right that the whole country pauses to remember the sacrifices of all those who fought and lost their lives in that conflict.
Heaton Park was the site of a large army training camp during the war. Each took on temporarily the identity of a British soldier who died on the first day of the Somme, and handed out information cards about that soldier. They did not talk, except for occasionally singing " We're here because we're here " to the tune of Auld Lang Syne. The Battle of the Somme has been called the beginning of modern all-arms warfare, during which Kitchener's Army learned to fight the mass-industrial war in which the continental armies had been engaged for two years.
This view sees the British contribution to the battle as part of a coalition war and part of a process, which took the strategic initiative from the German Army and caused it irreparable damage, leading to its collapse in late Haig and General Rawlinson have been criticised ever since for the human cost of the battle and for failing to achieve their territorial objectives. On 1 August Winston Churchill criticised the British Army's conduct of the offensive to the British Cabinet, claiming that though the battle had forced the Germans to end their offensive at Verdun, attrition was damaging the British armies more than the German armies.
Though Churchill was unable to suggest an alternative, a critical view of the British on the Somme has been influential in English-language writing ever since. As recently as , historian Peter Barton argued in a series of three television programmes that the Battle of the Somme should be regarded as a German defensive victory. This school of thought sets the battle in a context of a general Allied offensive in and notes that German and French writing on the battle puts it in a continental perspective.
Little German and French writing on this topic has been translated, leaving much of the continental perspective and detail of German and French military operations inaccessible to the English-speaking world. In current secondary education , the Battle of the Somme is barely mentioned in German school curricula , while it features prominently in the United Kingdom. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the battle fought in , see Second Battle of the Somme. Battle of the Somme. Western Front. The Western Front — Main article: Battle of Verdun. Main article: Brusilov Offensive. Map of the Valley of the Somme. See also: Mines on the first day of the Somme. Main article: First day on the Somme. Main article: Battle of Albert Main article: Battle of Bazentin Ridge. Main article: Battle of Fromelles. Main article: Battle of Delville Wood.
Main article: Battle of Guillemont. Main article: Battle of Ginchy. Main article: Battle of Flers—Courcelette. Main article: Battle of Morval. Main article: Battle of Thiepval Ridge. Main article: Battle of Le Transloy. Main article: Battle of the Ancre Heights. Main article: Battle of the Ancre. Progress of the Battle of the Somme between 1 July and 18 November. Main article: World War I casualties. Main article: Operations on the Ancre, January—March Main article: Operation Alberich. See also: Thiepval Memorial.
Thiepval Memorial to the British Missing of the Somme. World War I portal. Retrieved 9 August The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 September The Independent. Retrieved 1 July Journal of Military History.
London: Little Brown. War in History. Defense Studies. Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 1 August Books Bond, B.
The Battle of The Somme (True Combat) - Kindle edition by Alexander Macdonald. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. The Battle of The Somme (True Combat) eBook: Alexander Macdonald: Amazon. evarequpyb.tk: Kindle Store.
London: CUP. Boraston, J. Sir Douglas Haig's Despatches repr. London: Dent.
Churchill, W. The World Crisis Odhams ed. London: Thornton Butterworth. Chickering, R. Imperial Germany and the Great War, — 2nd ed. Doughty, R.
Dowling, T. The Brusilov Offensive. Duffy, C. Edmonds, J. London: Macmillan. Falls, C. London: HMSO. Foley, R. Cambridge: CUP. Harris, J. Douglas Haig and the First World War repr. Hart, P. The Somme. London: Cassell. Henniker, A. Transportation on the Western Front — Herwig, H. The Somme is commonly thought of as a ground offensive - but it was conducted from the air too. The Royal Flying Corps, the air army of the British Army, lost aircraft and aircrew were killed. A lot of the British losses were down to a misconception over the effectiveness of their missiles.
Soldiers on the Somme were told that sheer weight of artillery would destroy the Germans before they even got there. The battle was preceded by a seven day bombardment firing 1.
The German lines were extremely deep and extremely well made, protecting them from artillery fire, which the Brits were either unaware of or ignored. This was equivalent to one in ten people from the entire dominion - or one in five men. It was in this war that Hitler sustained his leg injury, and the rumoured injury to his groin.